Philippe I Bourgois

Professor-in-Residence, Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles

Philippe Bourgois, Ph.D., holds the Richard D. and Ruth P. Walter Chair in Psychiatry.


  1. Avra T, Cowan A, Friedman J, Fukushima J, Nelson A, Truman K, Stevens A, Bourgois P, Hansen H, Shover C, Goodman-Meza D. Decreasing Stigma Toward People Who Inject Drugs: Harm Reduction Training for First-Year Medical Students.. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 2024.
  2. Zhu DT, Friedman J, Bourgois P, Montero F, Tamang S. The emerging fentanyl-xylazine syndemic in the USA: challenges and future directions.. Lancet (London, England), 2023.
  3. Takada S, Shen Z, Bourgois P, Duru OK, Gelberg L, Han M, Javanbakht M, Shoptaw S, Wells K, Ryan G. A Qualitative Study of Perceptions and Preferences Regarding Social and Behavioral Risk Screening Among Primary Care Patients.. Journal of general internal medicine, 2023.
  4. Textor L, Friedman J, Bourgois P, Aronowitz S, Simon C, Jauffret-Roustide M, Namirembe S, Brothers S, McNeil R, Knight KR, Hansen H. Rethinking urban-rural designations in public health surveillance of the overdose crisis and crafting an agenda for future monitoring.. The International journal on drug policy, 2023.
  5. Friedman J, Godvin M, Molina C, Romero R, Borquez A, Avra T, Goodman-Meza D, Strathdee S, Bourgois P, Shover CL. Fentanyl, heroin, and methamphetamine-based counterfeit pills sold at tourist-oriented pharmacies in Mexico: An ethnographic and drug checking study.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2023.
  6. Friedman J, Godvin M, Molina C, Romero R, Borquez A, Avra T, Goodman-Meza D, Strathdee S, Bourgois P, Shover CL. Fentanyl, Heroin, and Methamphetamine-Based Counterfeit Pills Sold at Tourist-Oriented Pharmacies in Mexico: An Ethnographic and Drug Checking Study.. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences, 2023.
  7. Valasek CJ, Streuli SA, Pines HA, Strathdee SA, Borquez A, Bourgois P, Stamos-Buesig T, Vera CF, Harvey-Vera A, Bazzi AR. "A lotta people switched playing hard ball to playing Russian roulette": Experiences with rising overdose incidence caused by drug supply changes during the COVID-19 pandemic in the San Diego-Tijuana border metroplex.. Drug and alcohol dependence reports, 2023.
  8. Aronowitz SV, Carroll JJ, Hansen H, Jauffret-Roustide M, Parker CM, Suhail-Sindhu S, Albizu-Garcia C, Alegria M, Arrendondo J, Baldacchino A, Bluthenthal R, Bourgois P, Burraway J, Chen JS, Ekhtiari H, Elkhoy H, Farhoudian A, Friedman J, Jordan A, Kato L, Knight K, Martinez C, McNeil R, Murray H, Namirembe S, Radfar R, Roe L, Sarang A, Scherz C, Tay Wee Teck J, Textor L, Thi Hai Oanh K. Substance use policy and practice in the COVID-19 pandemic: Learning from early pandemic responses through internationally comparative field data.. Global public health, 2023.
  9. Montero F, Bourgois P, Friedman J. Potency-Enhancing Synthetics in the Drug Overdose Epidemic: Xylazine ("Tranq"), Fentanyl, Methamphetamine, and the Displacement of Heroin in Philadelphia and Tijuana.. Journal of illicit economies and development, 2022.
  10. Bailey K, Abramovitz D, Patterson TL, Harvey-Vera AY, Vera CF, Rangel MG, Friedman J, Davidson P, Bourgois P, Strathdee SA. Correlates of recent overdose among people who inject drugs in the San Diego/Tijuana border region.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2022.
  11. Calderón-Villarreal A, Terry B, Friedman J, González-Olachea SA, Chavez A, Díaz López M, Pacheco Bufanda L, Martinez C, Medina Ponce SE, Cázares-Adame R, Rochin Bochm PF, Kayser G, Strathdee SA, Muñoz Meléndez G, Holmes SM, Bojorquez I, Los Huertos M, Bourgois P. Deported, homeless, and into the canal: Environmental structural violence in the binational Tijuana River.. Social science & medicine (1982), 2022.
  12. Friedman J, Bourgois P, Godvin M, Chavez A, Pacheco L, Segovia LA, Beletsky L, Arredondo J. The introduction of fentanyl on the US-Mexico border: An ethnographic account triangulated with drug checking data from Tijuana.. The International journal on drug policy, 2022.
  13. Friedman J, Calderón-Villarreal A, Adame RC, Abramovitz D, Rafful C, Rangel G, Vera A, Strathdee SA, Bourgois P. An Ethnographic Assessment of COVID-19‒Related Changes to the Risk Environment for People Who Use Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.. American journal of public health, 2022.
  14. Friedman J, Montero F, Bourgois P, Wahbi R, Dye D, Goodman-Meza D, Shover C. Xylazine spreads across the US: A growing component of the increasingly synthetic and polysubstance overdose crisis.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2022.
  15. Fernando Montero; Philippe Bourgois; Joseph Friedman. Potency-Enhancing Synthetics in the Drug Overdose Epidemic: Xylazine (“Tranq”), Fentanyl, Methamphetamine, and the Displacement of Heroin in Philadelphia and Tijuana. Journal of Illicit Economies and Development, 2022.
  16. Friedman J, Mann NC, Hansen H, Bourgois P, Braslow J, Bui AAT, Beletsky L, Schriger DL. Racial/Ethnic, Social, and Geographic Trends in Overdose-Associated Cardiac Arrests Observed by US Emergency Medical Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic.. JAMA psychiatry, 2021.
  17. Simpson KA, Gevorgian H, Kral AH, Wenger L, Bourgois P, Bluthenthal RN. Prevalence and predictors of recent temporary psychiatric hold among a cohort of people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2021.
  18. Samra S, Schneberk T, Hsieh D, Bourgois P. Interpersonal and Structural Violence in the Wake of COVID-19.. American journal of public health, 2020.
  19. Friedman J, Syvertsen JL, Bourgois P, Bui A, Beletsky L, Pollini R. Intersectional structural vulnerability to abusive policing among people who inject drugs: A mixed methods assessment in California's central valley.. The International journal on drug policy, 2020.
  20. Starks SL, Kelly EL, Castillo EG, Meldrum ML, Bourgois P, Braslow JT. Client Outreach in Los Angeles County's Assisted Outpatient Treatment Program: Strategies and Barriers to Engagement.. Research on social work practice, 2020.
  21. Friedman J, Karandinos G, Hart LK, Castrillo FM, Graetz N, Bourgois P. Structural vulnerability to narcotics-driven firearm violence: An ethnographic and epidemiological study of Philadelphia's Puerto Rican inner-city.. PloS one, 2019.
  22. Friedman J, Kim D, Schneberk T, Bourgois P, Shin M, Celious A, Schriger DL. Assessment of Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in the Prescription of Opioids and Other Controlled Medications in California.. JAMA internal medicine, 2019.
  23. Barnert E, Lopez N, Bourgois P, Ryan G, Chung PJ, Stover E. My Child's Journey Home: Perspectives of Adult Family Members on the Separation and Reunification of the "Disappeared" Children of El Salvador.. Human rights quarterly, 2019.
  24. Karandinos G, Bourgois P. The Structural Violence of Hyperincarceration - A 44-Year-Old Man with Back Pain.. The New England journal of medicine, 2019.
  25. Branas CC, South E, Kondo MC, Hohl BC, Bourgois P, Wiebe DJ, MacDonald JM. Citywide cluster randomized trial to restore blighted vacant land and its effects on violence, crime, and fear.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018.
  26. Bluthenthal RN, Chu D, Wenger LD, Bourgois P, Valente T, Kral AH. Differences in time to injection onset by drug in California: Implications for the emerging heroin epidemic.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2018.
  27. Bourgois P. Decolonising drug studies in an era of predatory accumulation.. Third world quarterly, 2018.
  28. Bluthenthal RN, Wenger L, Chu D, Bourgois P, Kral AH. Drug use generations and patterns of injection drug use: Birth cohort differences among people who inject drugs in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2017.
  29. Bourgois P, Holmes SM, Sue K, Quesada J. Structural Vulnerability: Operationalizing the Concept to Address Health Disparities in Clinical Care.. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 2017.
  30. Mars SG, Bourgois P, Karandinos G, Montero F, Ciccarone D. The Textures of Heroin: User Perspectives on "Black Tar" and Powder Heroin in Two U.S. Cities.. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 2016.
  31. Ciccarone D, Bourgois P. Injecting drugs in tight spaces: HIV, cocaine and collinearity in the Downtown Eastside, Vancouver, Canada.. The International journal on drug policy, 2016.
  32. Bourgois P, Hart LK. [Pax Narcotica : The Open-Air Drug Markets of Philadelphia's Puerto Rican Inner City].. L' Homme; revue francaise d'anthropologie, 2016.
  33. Mars SG, Fessel JN, Bourgois P, Montero F, Karandinos G, Ciccarone D. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States.. Social science & medicine (1982), 2015.
  34. López LM, de Saxe Zerden L, Bourgois P, Hansen H, Abadie R, Dombrowski K, Curtis R. HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rican People Who Inject Drugs: Policy Considerations.. American journal of public health, 2015.
  35. Lorvick J, Lutnick A, Wenger LD, Bourgois P, Cheng H, Kral AH. Non-partner violence against women who use drugs in San Francisco.. Violence against women, 2014.
  36. Lutnick A, Harris J, Lorvick J, Cheng H, Wenger LD, Bourgois P, Kral AH. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.. Journal of interpersonal violence, 2014.
  37. Hansen H, Bourgois P, Drucker E. Pathologizing poverty: new forms of diagnosis, disability, and structural stigma under welfare reform.. Social science & medicine (1982), 2014.
  38. Karandinos G, Hart LK, Castrillo FM, Bourgois P. The Moral Economy of Violence in the US Inner City.. Current anthropology, 2014.
  39. Rosenblum D, Castrillo FM, Bourgois P, Mars S, Karandinos G, Unick GJ, Ciccarone D. Urban segregation and the US heroin market: a quantitative model of anthropological hypotheses from an inner-city drug market.. The International journal on drug policy, 2013.
  40. Mars SG, Bourgois P, Karandinos G, Montero F, Ciccarone D. "Every 'never' I ever said came true": transitions from opioid pills to heroin injecting.. The International journal on drug policy, 2013.
  41. Messac L, Ciccarone D, Draine J, Bourgois P. The good-enough science-and-politics of anthropological collaboration with evidence-based clinical research: Four ethnographic case studies.. Social science & medicine (1982), 2013.
  42. Harris JL, Lorvick J, Wenger L, Wilkins T, Iguchi MY, Bourgois P, Kral AH. Low-frequency heroin injection among out-of-treatment, street-recruited injection drug users.. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 2013.
  43. Bourgois P, Castrillo FM, Hart L, Karandinos G. [The Habit of Rage in a United States Ghetto.]. Espacio abierto, 2013.
  44. Lopez AM, Bourgois P, Wenger LD, Lorvick J, Martinez AN, Kral AH. Interdisciplinary mixed methods research with structurally vulnerable populations: case studies of injection drug users in San Francisco.. The International journal on drug policy, 2013.
  45. Lorvick J, Bourgois P, Wenger LD, Arreola SG, Lutnick A, Wechsberg WM, Kral AH. Sexual pleasure and sexual risk among women who use methamphetamine: a mixed methods study.. The International journal on drug policy, 2012.
  46. Bourgois P. Bringing HIV, Substance Abuse and Homelessness into the University of Pennsylvania Anthropology Museum through Photo-Ethnography.. Philadelphia social innovations journal, 2012.
  47. Bourgois P, Hewlett C, Hewlett C. Théoriser la violence en Améerique: Retour sur trente ans d'ethnographie.. L' Homme; revue francaise d'anthropologie, 2012.
  48. Bourgois P, Hart LK. Commentary on Genberg et al. (2011): the structural vulnerability imposed by hypersegregated US inner-city neighborhoods--a theoretical and practical challenge for substance abuse research.. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 2011.
  49. Draine J, McTighe L, Bourgois P. Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: an HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal.. International journal of law and psychiatry, 2011.
  50. Quesada J, Hart LK, Bourgois P. Structural vulnerability and health: Latino migrant laborers in the United States.. Medical anthropology, 2011.
  51. Bourgois P. Lumpen Abuse: The Human Cost of Righteous Neoliberalism.. City & society (Washington, D.C.), 2011.
  52. Roy E, Arruda N, Vaillancourt E, Boivin JF, Morissette C, Leclerc P, Alary M, Bourgois P. Drug use patterns in the presence of crack in downtown Montréal.. Drug and alcohol review, 2011.
  53. Rhodes T, Stimson GV, Moore D, Bourgois P. Qualitative social research in addictions publishing: Creating an enabling journal environment.. The International journal on drug policy, 2010.
  54. Smid M, Bourgois P, Auerswald CL. The challenge of pregnancy among homeless youth: reclaiming a lost opportunity.. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 2010.
  55. Kral AH, Wenger L, Carpenter L, Wood E, Kerr T, Bourgois P. Acceptability of a safer injection facility among injection drug users in San Francisco.. Drug and alcohol dependence, 2010.
  56. Alarcón C, Bourgois P. Untitled Publication. Salud colectiva, 2010.
  57. Ciccarone D, Jain S, Bourgois P. Understanding illicit substance use in the real world.. Medical education, 2008.
  58. Bourgois P. Sofferenza e vulnerabilitá socialmente strutturate. Tossicodipendenti senzatetto negli Stati Uniti.. Antropologia (Rome, Italy), 2008.
  59. Bourgois P. The mystery of marijuana: science and the U.S. War on Drugs.. Substance use & misuse, 2008.
  60. Bourgois P, Schonberg J. Ethnic dimensions of habitus among homeless heroin injectors.. Ethnography, 2007.
  61. Bourgois P, Martinez A, Kral A, Edlin BR, Schonberg J, Ciccarone D. Reinterpreting ethnic patterns among white and African American men who inject heroin: a social science of medicine approach.. PLoS medicine, 2006.
  62. Crane JT, Kawuma A, Oyugi JH, Byakika JT, Moss A, Bourgois P, Bangsberg DR. The price of adherence: qualitative findings from HIV positive individuals purchasing fixed-dose combination generic HIV antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda.. AIDS and behavior, 2006.
  63. Rhodes T, Singer M, Bourgois P, Friedman SR, Strathdee SA. The social structural production of HIV risk among injecting drug users.. Social science & medicine (1982), 2005.
  64. Comfort M, Grinstead O, McCartney K, Bourgois P, Knight K. "You cannot do nothing in this damn place": sex and intimacy among couples with an incarcerated male partner.. Journal of sex research, 2005.
  65. Walter N, Bourgois P, Margarita Loinaz H. Masculinity and undocumented labor migration: injured latino day laborers in San Francisco.. Social science & medicine (1982), 2004.
  66. Bourgois P, Prince B, Moss A. The Everyday Violence of Hepatitis C Among Young Women Who Inject Drugs in San Francisco.. Human organization, 2004.
  67. Ciccarone D, Bourgois P. Explaining the geographical variation of HIV among injection drug users in the United States.. Substance use & misuse, 2003.
  68. Bourgois P. University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, Department of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine.. Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 2003.
  69. Hahn JA, Page-Shafer K, Lum PJ, Bourgois P, Stein E, Evans JL, Busch MP, Tobler LH, Phelps B, Moss AR. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among young injection drug users: relationships and risks.. The Journal of infectious diseases, 2002.
  70. Walter N, Bourgois P, Margarita Loinaz H, Schillinger D. Social context of work injury among undocumented day laborers in San Francisco.. Journal of general internal medicine, 2002.
  71. Agar M, Bourgois P, French J, Murdoch O. Buprenorphine: "field trials" of a new drug.. Qualitative health research, 2001.
  72. Bourgois P. Disciplining addictions: the bio-politics of methadone and heroin in the United States.. Culture, medicine and psychiatry, 2000.
  73. Bourgois P. Theory, method, and power in drug and HIV-prevention research: a participant-observer's critique.. Substance use & misuse, 1999.
  74. Bourgois P. The moral economies of homeless heroin addicts: confronting ethnography, HIV risk, and everyday violence in San Francisco shooting encampments.. Substance use & misuse, 1998.
  75. Bourgois P. The political economy of resistance and self-destruction in the crack economy. An ethnographic perspective.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1995.